Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Founding Brothers Summaries Essay Essay Example Founding Brothers Summaries Essay Essay Founding Brothers Summaries Essay Essay Essay Topic: O Brother Where Foreword The foreword of Establishing Brothers sets up the historical context and temper for the undermentioned chapters. seting an accent on the American Revolution. and its significance and inevitableness. After the revolutions the amazing success and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s release from Great Britain. no 1 was certain America could keep its ain for long. It had non yet established an active authorities and was deemed probably by many to fall apart into single provinces. However. the founding Ã¢â¬Å"fathersÃ¢â¬ were determined to hold America survive as a successful state. so they initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787 during which the American Constitution was created. : Chapter 1 the Duel The first chapter of the novel pertains to the conflict between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton. One forenoon in the summer of 1804. the two conducted a affaire dhonneur near Weehawken. New Jersey following the codification duello. It resulted in the decease of Hamilton which accordingly tainted BurrÃ¢â¬â¢s repute. Hamilton was shot and killed by one of two shootings that were fired. In the wake. two narratives were known amongst the populace: the Hamilton version and the Burr version. The Hamilton version is that Burr was the first to fire and Hamilton impetuously fired into the air upon being shooting. The Burr version is that Hamilton fired foremost. intentionally losing. and after about four or five seconds. Burr fired that fatal shooting that killed Hamilton. who outright fell to the land. Although this version was about undoubtedly incorrect. it was slightly of a consensus amongst the populace. Ironically. the Burr version is more credible because it contains the interruption between the two shootings upon which was both sides agreed. hence doing HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s automatic shooting extremely implausible. The affaire dhonneur was the consequence of Hamilton piquing Burr and so declining to apologise. Chapter 2 the Dinner The chapterÃ¢â¬â¢s 2nd chapter goes back to the eighteenth century. before the events of the predating chapter. Ellis tells Thomas JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s history of a dinner he held at his place in mid-June of 1790. He invited Alexander Hamilton and James Madison to discourse the hereafter location of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s capital. This subject was supplemented by conversations sing the economic crisis of the times. The dinner led to a via media between Madison and Hamilton. Madison would non oppose HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s fiscal program in exchange for HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s support of the capitalÃ¢â¬â¢s hereafter location to be along the Potomac River. However. Ellis proposes that this via media was non merely the consequence of the individual dinner but instead several treatments. George Washington decided that AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s capital would be established east of Georgetown and was named Washington D. C. after Washington himself. Having originally promised it would be in propinquity of the Pennsylvania boundary line. the cardinal street was named Pennsylvania Avenue in order to pacify defeated Pennsylvanians. Chapter 3 The Silence The 3rd chapter of the fresh involves a outstanding difference that about broke apart the immature state. This statement was a consequence of requests presented to the House of Representatives a few months prior to JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s dinner by two Quaker deputations naming for the terminal of the African slave trade. Those in favour of keeping bondage in the United States were chiefly the southern provinces. particularly Georgia. represented by James Jackson. and South Carolina. represented by William Loughton Smith. They argued that Congress should disregard the requests because the Constitution prohibited authorities action on the slave trade until 1808 anyhow and that it was simply and try to accomplish emancipation. They even took it so far as to endanger to win if the affair was non openly discussed. No 1 in the House took the enterprise to rebut the SouthÃ¢â¬â¢s allegations and this silence is what the chapterÃ¢â¬â¢s rubric refers to. In the terminal. there was no existent national consequence. In order to stop this difference. James Madison passed a ballot from the House to amend the Constitution so that Congress would hold no authorization to interfere with bondage. Chapter 4 Farewell This chapter focuses on George WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s farewell reference and therefore his formal decline to function a 3rd term as president. Despite holding been partly written in coaction with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s farewell reference included his and merely his hopes for the hereafter of the United States. Amongst the points that he stressed were the demand for national integrity. the danger of partiality and party political relations. and the foreign policy of neutrality and diplomatic independency from the disruptive events happening in Europe at the clip. Thankss to Washington. go forthing office after two footings became customary for wining presidents. except for Franklin D. Roosevelt who served three full footings and died during his 4th. In 1951. the 22nd Amendment made it jurisprudence that a president may merely function at most two footings. America was by and large saddened by the retirement of such a great leader as George Washington. f or he was seen by the population as a virtually god-like figure. Chapter 5 The Confederates After the retirement of George Washington. the two prima campaigners for the presidential term were John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. both good friends and great rivals. However. Adams was a Federalist and Jefferson was a Republican. and the two parties were going progressively counter towards each other. In 1796. John Adams was officially elected president and Jefferson vice-president. Since they were from different parties. they had different dockets for their clip in office. At dinner with Washington in 1797. Jefferson informed Adams that he was non interested in fall ining his cabinet and the Republican Party did non mean to partake in the peace deputation Adams was directing to France. From so on Adams neer once more addressed JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s inclusion in policy devising determinations. In the 1800 election. the presidential term was won by Jefferson with Aaron Burr as the vice-president. After the election. Adams and Jefferson did non talk to one another for 12 long old ages. Chapter 6 Friendship The bookÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning chapter one time once more pertains to John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. After 12 old ages of silence between the two they eventually began to restore their friendly relationship through missive correspondence initiated by Adams that would last until their deceases. They both put forth a noticeable attempt to accommodate and their long-held regard for each other overcame the resentment from their past differences. The missive correspondence consisted of 158 letters stoping in 1826 when both work forces died. On the 50th day of remembrance of American independency in 1826. both Jefferson and Adams died within about five hours of each other.
Posted by z at 3:54 AM
Sunday, March 1, 2020
How to Approach a Teacher With a Concern Even the best teachers make an occasional mistake. We are not perfect, and most of us will admit our failures. Great teachers will proactively informÃ parents immediately when they realize they have made a mistake. Most parents will appreciate the candor in this approach. When a teacher realizes they have made a mistake and decides not to inform the parent, it seems dishonest and will have a negative effect on the parent-teacher relationship. When Your Child Reports an Issue What should you do if your child comes home and tells you they had an issue with a teacher? First of all, do not jump to conclusions. While you want to back your child at all times, it is necessary to realize that there are always two sides to a story. Children will occasionally stretch the truth because they are afraid they will be in trouble. There are also times that they did not accurately interpret the actions of the teacher. In any case, there is a right way and wrong way to address any concerns brought about by what your child had told you. How you confront or approach the issue may be the most crucial aspect of handling a concern with a teacher. If you take a Ã¢â¬Å"guns blazingÃ¢â¬ approach, the teacher and the administration are likely going to label you a Ã¢â¬Å"difficult parentÃ¢â¬ . This will lead to increased frustration. School officials will automatically go into defense mode and will be less likely to cooperate. It is imperative that you come in calm and level-headed. Ã Addressing the Issue With the Teacher How should you address a concern with a teacher? In most cases, you can start with the teacher themselves. However, it is crucial to note that if it involves the breaking of a law inform the principal and file a police report. Set up an appointment to meet with the teacher at a time that is convenient for them. This will typically be before school, after school, or during their planning period. Let them know immediately that you have some concerns and want to hear their side of the story. Provide them with the details that you have been given. Give them an opportunity to explain their side of the situation. There are times where a teacher genuinely does not realize they have made a mistake. Hopefully, this will provide the answers you are seeking. If the teacher is rude, uncooperative, or speaks in vague double talk, it may be time to advance to the next step in the process. In any case, be sure to document the details of your discussion. This will be helpful should the issue remain unresolved. Most issues can be resolved without having to take it to the principal. However, there are certainly times when this is warranted. Most principals will be willing to listen so long as you are civil. They field parent concerns quite often so they are usually adept at handling them.Ã Be prepared to provide them with as much information as possible. What to Expect Next Understand that they are going to investigate the complaint thoroughly and that it may take them several days before they get back with you. They should provide you with a follow-up call/meeting to discuss the situation further. It is essential to note that they will not be able to discuss the specifics if teacher discipline was warranted. However, there is an excellent chance that the teacher was placed on a plan of improvement.Ã They should provide details of a resolution as it pertains directly to your child. Again, it is beneficial to document the details of the initial meeting and any follow-up calls/meetings. The good news is that 99% of perceived teacher problems are handled before getting to this point. If you are not satisfied with the way the principal handled the situation, the next step would be to go through a similar process with the superintendent. Only take this step if the teacher and the principal absolutely refuse to cooperate with you in handling the problem. Give them all the details of your situation including the results of your meetings with the teacher and principal. Allow them plenty of time to resolve the issue. If you still believe the situation is unresolved, you may take the complaint to the local board of education. Be sure to follow the district policies and procedures for being placed on the board agenda. You will not be allowed to address the board if you have not. The board expects administrators and teachers to do their jobs. When you do bring a complaint before the board, it can force the superintendent and principal to take the matter more seriously than they had previously. Going before the board is the last opportunity to have your problem resolved. If you still are unsatisfied, you can decide to seek a change of placement. You can look to have your child placed in another classroom, apply for a transfer to another district, or homeschool your child.
Posted by z at 7:38 PM
Friday, February 14, 2020
Phase 1 Discussion Board 3 - Essay Example Some of the management tools that aid the process of governing employee behavior include the code of conduct and ethical principles. Codes of conduct are clearly crafted rules that govern behavior of employees at the work place. The set of guidelines contain the dos and the donÃ¢â¬â¢ts of the organization. They further give a clear outline of appropriate disciplinary actions taken against an employee who contravene them. Ethical principles on the other hand refer to accepted behaviors. These are not written and have no mechanism effecting their compliance. Each society and profession has a number of acceptable behaviors and conduct to which every practitioner or member is required to abide by, failing to results to either lack of professionalism or gross misconduct. The ethical codes are in most cases reinstated in the codes of conduct of most professions (Davis, Giordano, & Licht, 2009). However, an individual is required to have a sense of responsive behavior in the conduct of bu siness transactions. Management in business refers to the coordinating, overseeing and supervising the activities in the organization with the aim of achieving the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives. In doing this, the management ensures that all employees have the right mindset and are geared towards the attainment of the same. ... To a achieve this, the management must effectively and adequately understand the concept of management and the theories governing the same. Contingency theory of management postulates that each situation in the organization is unique and requires unique strategies to accomplish. This theory dictates that rather than having a universal approach to every situation, an organization should tailor make strategies for every situation. This way, the unique features of the situation are addressed. This is the most practical approach and is in most cases cost effective. Another theory of management that is equally effective is the systems theory. This theory views an organization as a system with four components that include input, transformational process, outputs, and feedback. Each of these four is integral to the attainment of the organizational objectives and must therefore be effectively coordinated. There are two types of organizational systems, the open, and the close system. A closed system does not interact with the external environment while and open system operates in constant interaction with the environment (Coon & Mitterer, 2011). Two theorists, Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor in analyzing the behavioral viewpoint of management hypothesized that human relations movements emphasize social factors at work resulting in group dynamics. It is common to find informal class groupings at a palace of work. These groupings are formed n the basis of mutual interest of the members. Despite being formal and irrelevant to the direct process production, the groups require effective management since they shape employee mindset. In such groups, employee come together especially at tea or lunch breaks and discuss social issues
Posted by z at 11:04 AM
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Achievements of Land and Conveyancing Law Reform Act 2009 - Essay Example There are considerable reforms which have been achieved in law of mortgages after the introduction of the Land and Conveying Law Reform 20091. The land reforms were occasioned by the need to modernize the property law to adhere with the current social, economic and demographic changes. Another objective was to simplify the law and make it more accessible and understood. Much of the property law on conveying had been governed by laws that were enacted in 19th century thus most of the rules and principles were obsolete. The areas which were covered in the consultations include estates in land, mortgages, future interests, contracts for the sale of land and conveyances, settlements and trusts. The Act provided repeal of the enactments which were considered obsolete depending on the modern circumstances and modernization of the land in regard to lis pendens with the amendment of the registration of deeds and Title Acts of both 1964 and 20062. The Act came in to force on 1st December 2009 with the exception of Section 132 which deals with rent reviews which came in force on 28th February 2010. The Land and Conveyancing Law Reform Act 2009 provides inter alia for the amendments of law dealing with the review of rents and variation of the trusts. The Act makes an inclusive definition of land whereby land is defined as any estate or interest over the land whether corporeal or incorporeal. Land also includes land covered by water, buildings, structures, mines, minerals, and airspace which is above the surface of the land or any structures. The Act also expands the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"incumbranceÃ¢â¬ to include any charge, lien, mortgage, portion, annuity and trust securing capital sum or annual sum3. The land reforms comprise the fundamental reforms of Irish Land law since 19th century. The Act has simplified the registration of Land and mortgages by providing e-conveyancing. The Act has abolished the vestiges of feudal tenure that may be surviving in the modern era but has retained the estates doctrine with amendments so as to ensure only two legal estates of land can exist in Irish Law. The two estates include the leasehold estate and freehold estate of a fee simple in possession4. The principle that contracts must be evidenced by writing has been rested in modern and simple language and the minimum period for production of a good root of title has been minimized from 40 years to 15 years. The deeds which may be executed by individuals no longer require as seal but must be executed in a valid manner since there must be two witnesses to attest their signatures. The Act has recognized the deeds that may be executed by foreign-registered companies if done according to the foreign law applicable for the particular company. Another major simplification is provision fro the application of the rules of notice of the Act if instruments such as mortgages omit the provisions and rules of serving a notice including the criteria of serving the notice th rough e-commerce or facsimile machine5. The law has brought important changes since it is no longer possible to sever a joint tenancy. Since all the tenants must either consent to the severance or a court procedure must follow where the consent is not possible to obtain. Accordingly, registration of any mortgage against the interest of the joint tenant will not sever the joint tenancy. However, if such mortgage remains unsevered, the judgment mortgage will only extinguish after the death of the judgment debtor. The law has made it possible for freehold covenants created since it came in force to be enforced against successors in title of the original covenantor. The rule of Tulk v Moxhay which allowed negative covenants to bind the successors has been abolished by
Posted by z at 7:51 PM
Friday, January 24, 2020
The Salem Witch Trials of 1692 In colonial Massachusetts between February of 1692 and May of 1963 over one hundred and fifty people were arrested and imprisoned for the capital felony of witchcraft. Trials were held in Salem Village, Ipswich, Andover and Salem Town of Essex County of Massachusetts, but accusations of witchcraft occurred in surrounding counties as well. Nineteen of the accused, fourteen women and five men, were hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem Village. Hysteria had swept through Puritan Massachusetts and hundreds of people were accused of witchcraft. Why these accusations came about might account for a combination of an ongoing frontier war, economic conditions, congregational strife, teenage boredom, and personal jealousy among neighbors.* The colonial era was dangerous and the settlers were exposed to much hardship, not only with other inhabitants of the land, but with themselves as well. The Event The Witchcraft crisis began in mid-January of 1691, when a young girl named Betty Parris living in the household of the Reverend Samuel Parris of Salem Village, Massachusetts, became strangely ill. She had suffered from fits of hysteria and delusions. The Reverend called upon the local physician, William Griggs, whom could find nothing physically wrong with her and ultimately concluded that she had been bewitched. (It is now believed that Betty Parris may have been suffering from stress, asthma, guilt, boredom, child abuse, epilepsy, and/or delusional psychosis.)* Three women were accused of the bewitching of Betty. She accused Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba, the Reverend Samuel ParrisÃ¢â¬â¢ slave. Both Good and Osborne claimed their innocence, but Tituba confessed to witchcraft Ã¢â¬â possibly for feeling guil... ...ent that the Indian Wars had much to do with the trials at all. Only that people were anxious and fearful because of them. I also find it interesting that women, usually under the age of 25, were the ones accusing others of witchcraft and why they were believed by the colonyÃ¢â¬â¢s magistrates. I believe that witchcraft offered a valid excuse to the colonies misfortunes and the unexplained Ã¢â¬Å"Invisible WorldÃ¢â¬ . The Puritans strict religion created much fear in the people, and the idea of Satan and witchcraft was a way of keeping people in order, since there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really a police system at the time. After much research I became rather fascinated by the events surrounding the Salem Witch Trials. Since there is still much mystery and debate about the subject, it makes it even more interesting.
Posted by z at 4:15 PM
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Debate the proposition that employers are more concerned with controlling employee behaviour than they are with eliciting employee commitment. Essay
It can be said that employers have become increasingly concentrated towards controlling employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour than endeavouring to attain employee commitment in organisations. Control can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"To exercise authoritative or dominating influence overÃ¢â¬ . However this can become controversial when applied to working with people therefore as a countermeasure commitment has been introduced to even the balance. This can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a combination of commitment to the organisation and its values and a willingness to help out colleagues (organisational citizenship). It goes beyond job satisfaction and is not simply motivation. Engagement is something the employee has to offer: it cannot be Ã¢â¬ËrequiredÃ¢â¬â¢ as part of the employment contract. Commitment is therefore intrinsic to the individual employee and difficult to measure what exactly makes each one motivated therefore control should be utilised to a greater extent. This shift to controlling employees rather than endeavouring to ensure that they are committed has led to a majority of staff feeling undervalued and therefore unable to achieve their potential in the workplace. A study has shown that controlling employees has led to a drop in productivity due to the fact that a 26% or three quarters of staff members, feel that they are being manipulated rather than being utilised to their potential . Therefore, this illustrates that companies are now shifting towards compliance from their employees to follow ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s directives in lieu of commitment that is attained through the use of de-centralised management e.g. Matrix structures. However if companies therefore wish to therefore use centralised management the possibility for employee commitment is therefore limited. Matrix structures do have the effect of improving commitment as they include no hierarchy and equal standing by those in them however they must be monitored to ensure that they are still effective and not misusedÃ for their less stringent management style and that some structures favoured over others . McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s (1960) XY theory is a method to illustrate the management style of an organisation to determine whether it favours control or commitment from its workforce. Employee behaviour which is heavily controlled follows the pattern of Theory X, as opposed to the Theory Y which is intended to generate employee commitment. Theory X favours that managers exercise control and directed to achieve the organisational objectives with little flexibility for employees to use their initiative, whereas Theory Y believes that commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievements . Theory X managers have somewhat receded however employees are still being controlled under the assumption that businesses are using commitment methods for example flexible working practises and appraisals which will be discussed later. Commitment is intrinsic which requires more resources, however control is external and can be done more effectively than commitment. See appendix one for a model of McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. To control employee behaviour a number of measures have been utilised in the office environment that have enabled them to be observed by managers and recorded in order to monitor them while they are on the premises. By installing these devices it motivates the employee to work as they are constantly being monitored and therefore provides a sense of motivation for them to work as signs of slacking/unauthorised absence are recorded and used as evidence to support that fact . CCTV has evolved in recent years for businesses. Before, it was used as a common security device for the building, now, it has become a performance tool for mangers in which as a further measure to control their staff. This is done by highlighting those employees who are slacking to ensuring that proper procedure is being adhered to while on the premises. . This constant monitoring can have the effect of de-moralising employees as their every move in the workplace is being scrutinised. Job commitment however relegates CCTV to its previous function of security as management entrust employees to do their jobs, but now that CCTV has been turned in towards employees it is evident that control measures are being used instead of trying to create commitment. Yet CCTV is but one way of retaining control of staff in the workplace. ForÃ instance, in McDonalds through the use of CCTV cameras, productivity has increased through unobtrusive CCTV coverage of workers and customers . An additional method which a business can use technology to monitor employees is the practice of electronic Ã¢â¬Å"clocking inÃ¢â¬ systems. These devices have been implemented in large businesses that employ a multitude of staff in which individual movement of employees can be difficult to trace. A business which has done this exactly this is Poundworld in which employees are electronically scanned into at the start of a shift and have the consequence of deduced salary if this process has been neglected . As a method of control, these devices can monitor exactly when an employee has begun their shift or when they have returned from their breaks etc. to ensure that they begin work at the proper time. This also ensures proper records can be maintained should any discrepancy arise regarding timekeeping. However this monitoring of movement may hamper employee commitment as they are constantly being recorded while on the premises for timekeeping plus they can feel dis-trusted by management as they are being constantly monitored for when they started their shift. Employers have minutely contributed to employee commitment with the use of Job Design which has been utilised to effect in certain companies such as Microsoft who use elements like job share to encourage employees in their roles Job Design is when the duties and the role of an employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ position have been analysed and decided by management before they are employed or amending parts of an employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ position while they are employed. Job Design permits an input from employees into their role of the organisation as they collaborate with management in which their position is defined. A further example of stimulating commitment with job design is when employees and employers discuss characteristics of the position that would suit the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities which in turn increases their motivation as the employers are permitting staff an input into designing their responsibilities in the job. However, employers have the opportunity to use job design to influence control of over their staff with the use techniques such as job expansion and job rotation with allow them to amend or add additional workload to their job which may not be to the employees benefit.Ã Furthermore, an employer has the ability to change the job design of staff to suit their requirements over employees depending on the situation without any input from employees. By way of strategically/tactically controlling their staff, management are employing the use of Management by Objectives for all members of staff to analyse if targets or goals are being met. This can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"A methods of management whereby managers and employees define goals for each department, project, and person and use them to monitor subsequent performanceÃ¢â¬ . Controlling behaviour is being used here as management are attaining the utmost effectiveness from a particular member of staff or individual department as their desired goals are measured against their actual goals and analyse if they have been accomplished. However commitment is being given to the staff/department as the decisions to how they achieve their stated goals has been de-centralised for them to decide. As technology has increased to such an extent, a business can take advantage of employing staff that do not have to work in the office environment through the use of flexible working contracts and providing them with equipment to work off-site. These contracts enable a business to offer their employees who are unable to travel or who have other commitment so actively continue working but in the confines of their own home or on the go by the use of a laptop or mobile phones. As employees are away from the office, a main disadvantage is that their working pattern cannot be monitored to ensure that they are actually fulfilling their tasks. As controlling behaviour has become more prevalent to management, software has be embedded to the technology issued to these homeworkers e.g. tracker and keystroke logs to monitor the use of laptops and phones during the day. For example, Freedom Direct, a holiday company offers such flexible contracts and issues those involved with hardware embedded with this surveillance software to safeguard against slacking while away from the eyes of management . However some companies now prefer to control their employees from one central organisation. For example Yahoo managing director has decided to ban employees from using home working to Ã¢â¬Å"build on corporate cultureÃ¢â¬ however this has damaged commitment as many employees have been demoralised by thisÃ decision that may affect their future in the company. . Furthermore, to bolster the claim of controlling employees, this ban on flexible practises was instigated after an investigation of employee logs showed it fell below the standard expected for their employees and therefore cut this form of employment from the organisation. . This therefore illustrates that electronic devices provided by organisation are monitored to ensure that duties are conducted. Employee commitment is therefore given an opportunity by senior management by permitting a group of employees to work away from the office on these contracts who might not have the opportunity to do so. This increases motivation and job satisfaction to the company as they would not lose any valuable staff plus have the ability to monitor these employees away from the office with the tracker software to monitor their actions during the working day. Control is again utilised as these employees are monitored no less than their counterparts in the office and are monitored with the identical software. Control has been favoured in organisations as those with the authority to make decisions in their department must to be held to account for those decisions should they prove to be incorrect. Accountability can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the fact that those people with authority and responsibility are subject to reporting and justifying task outcomes to those above them in the chain of commandÃ¢â¬ . By having a clear and define line of authority from the managing director to the clerk, it is possible to identify who should be held to account and therefore justify their decisions should they prove them to be incorrect or disastrous. This can be de-moralising as these targets are not negotiable and therefore must be achieve which adds an element of stress. Managers often therefore are hesitant to issue instructions in which they know are difficult to achieve, yet this can bolster commitment within the company as employees, if informed, that these tasks are of some difficulty may strive to attain them to receive the department recognition for doing so. This therefore increases motivation as well as assists in team-building for the department as they are united in a common goal . Employee behaviour can be controlled by the use of annual appraisals of departments. This is the discussion in which an employee and manager decideÃ on the objectives and the action necessary to achieve them for the coming year. Appraisals are a two way discussion in which the employee states what they wish to achieve for the year and the manager offers guidance to do so, however this is again a method for which control even though employees perceive it as being a method for commitment. The employee may see appraisals as a method in which they are in control of what they want to achieve and not what the business wants them to do. This is an opportunity for managers to input targets or goals which the employee agrees on without knowing the magnitude of the task, however they must achieve as it has been stated on the appraisal document and could lead to a poor appraisal the subsequent year. Managers can use these to implement control over employees in which to dispel rewards to the employee thus motivates them to achieve their objectives. The threat of disciplinary action for repeated failure to attain objectives set out at appraisals is a sure way to coerce commitment in the workplace as employees will strive to achieve those objectives set at appraisals. Employers have the ability to produce commitment while still using control methods by the use of a health work/life balance. This can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"concept that supports the efforts of employees to split their time and energy between work and the other important aspects of their livesÃ¢â¬ . While managers are allowing an employee to split their time between a professional and a private life they can still use methods such as monitoring social media to ensure that no derogatory remarks have been made against the organisation known as reputation management. It has been reported that 80% of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce use social media sites in one way or another therefore the scope for badmouthing a company has increased. To combat this possibility 60% of selected businesses have proposed to implement software that would detect this . It is imperative that a business conform to the laws which dictate when an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s professional life ends and when a personal one begins as not to intrude. Having a healthy balance between personal and professional life enhances commitment to the organisation due to employees recognising that their business does not own them permanently and are permitted a life outside the office however are unobtrusively monitored to an extent. In order for senior management to exercise control over employees while they are in the workplace, management have re-employed the use of a well-defined and structured hierarchy in organisations in which they can delegate the operational control of the business to managers or first level employees who have a greater understand of how operations of the department are conducted. Middle management positions such as Assistant Managers for departments have returned to businesses due to the fact that the employees on this level support change to departments which may not be popular as well as focusing on the different strategies which have been set by the company . By re-introducing levels of management that may have been de-layered previously, companies are therefore increasing their Vertical differentiation to establish a clear line of authority in departments. This may be advantageous for commitment in departments that have a copious amount of staff as problems can be easily rectified, yet they can be seen as another level of management in which the business has established to ensure their corporate strategies are met irrespective to employee requirements. In order to control employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour, businesses have invested in training and development programs to educate their workforce with various methods such as induction training through to university courses. Induction training is a period in which a new employee to the business is given training preceding their start in the business. This provides an opportunity for the member of staff to become aware of the procedures, policies and workplace culture that a business has. In order to train potential or existing staff some businesses have adopted a system of internal in-house training schemes that have been adapted especially to fit different purposes. Businesses such as McDonalds which have established educational institutes for potential staff to undertake for promotion or re-training or other reasons which would see those who graduate attain a recognised qualification . However due to their size and expense they are restricted to large highly profitable businesses. A purpose of these schools is to instruct that person on what is expected of them while in employment and how to undertake different duties, however these methods can be categorised as a method of control as these courses are pre-designed so that employeesÃ should conform only to those that are taught as they expect them to be correct. Commitment can be fostered from this as employees may be more motivated and satisfied in their position as they have been trained to a degree so that they are competent in their role in the business and provide a sense of a good working environment to potential employees, plus as this is a recognised qualification this can be presented as part of an application as a symbol that they have enrolled and passed a course specifically designed to train members of staff. The drawback of control becomes the advantages of using commitment and should influence a business to implement commitment measures For example; PfeffersÃ¢â¬â¢ model of high performance factors is heavily influenced as commitment measures that managers should consider to bolster the motivation of their workforce. However these are disguised as a further method of control as to attain these factors the workforce must demonstrate they are a viable working entity. The factors that constitute this model are Team working and de-centralised management, High pay and incentive, Employee Security, Extensive training and development, Narrow status differentials and Careful recruitment and selection. Cultural control is a method that managers can use to Ã¢â¬Å"define specific patterns of behaviour within a professional environmentÃ¢â¬ . This behaviour has already been stipulated by the management of how they wish the workforce to conform and therefore expect these patterns to re-enforce organisational culture. A method in which an employee can become accustomed to the social norms of a workplace culture is through induction training. Therefore the accompanying member of staff would acquaint the new employee of the social norms that have been adopted by staff which they will conform to. This method of control is an example of how management quickly adapt staff to the methods of the workforce that have already been repeated for other staff. A company that would be perceived as having a poor corporate culture would be BP. In the wake of the oil spill in 2007 in which an inquiry was found to ascertain that intense cost cutting and efficiency measures demoralised the workforce therefore affected practises which precipitated the disaster through negligence of corporate culture. A final method in which businesses can control their workforce is through the monitoring of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter. The organisation will monitor their employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ posts on these sites to ascertain they are behaving in an according manner or post any derogatory statements regarding the business or its staff. This is a method of control as staff are being monitored while they are on the premises as well as off therefore this encroaches into their personal life affecting the work/life balance. It has been reported that 60% of businesses by 2015 will have some monitor in place in order to track their workforce on social media sites in order to protect the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation or the brand they are selling . An example of a business that has used this is Proskauer Rose in which staff have it written into their contract of employment that they will be monitored on social media sites. Therefore to conclude, it would appear that mangers controlling employee behaviour has become more prevalent that endeavouring to attain employee commitment in organisations. This could be the case as controlling employees has become cheaper that resorting to measures to attain employee commitment as well as ensuring their effectiveness in the workplace as well as out of it . However there should be an even balance between control and commitment from managers to create a suitable working environment for employees as they would not prefer to working in a hostile business which treats them as a tool rather than one which treats them as a valuable resource. Using control methods such as technology and monitoring ensures that staff are adhering to policy set out in their contract. References Always Watching . (2010). Benefits of CCTV for your Business. Retrieved Feburary 19, 2013, from Always Watching.com: http://www.always-watching.com/benefits-of-cctv-for-your-business.html Anviz, Newsdesk. (2011, August). AnvizÃ¢â¬â¢s VF30 fingerprint time clock on Channel 4Ã¢â¬ ²s Ã¢â¬ËUndercover BossÃ¢â¬â¢. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from Security Newsdesk: http://www.securitynewsdesk.com/2011/08/10/anvizs-vf30-fingerprint-time-clock-on-channel-4s-undercover-boss/ Bednarz, T. (2013, January 15). Empowered Organisations Develop Employee Commitment. Retrieved Feburary 18, 2013, from Leaders to Leader: http://blog.majoriumbusinesspress.com/2013/01/15/empowered-organizations-develop-employee-commitment/ Broome, I. (2009, July 20). How CCTV can help improve your productivity. Retrieved Feburary 10, 2013, from IanBroome.com: http://iainbroome.com/how-cctv-can-help-improve-your-productivity Business Dictionary. (2013). What is Job Design. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from Business Dictionary: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-design.html Chertkow, M. (2012, August 24). CCTV is not just about security anymore Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s performance management and productivity tool, too . Retrieved Feburary 19, 2013, from IT web Techforum: http://www.itweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=57970 CIPD. (2012, July). Employee Engagement. Retrieved March 7, 2013, from CIPD: http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/employee-engagement.aspx#link_0 CIPD. (2012, April). Job Design. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2013, from CIPD: http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/job-design.aspx Clark, D. (2010, October 3). Theory X and Theory Y. Retrieved Feburary 25, 2013, from Officebroker.com: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/history/xy.html Cross, S. (2013). Examples of Cultural Controls in Organizational Structure. Retrieved March 7, 2013, from Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-cultural-controls-organizational-structure-13425.html Daft, R. (2008). The New Era of Management. Mason: Thomson South-Western. Daft, R Kendrick, M Vershinina N . (2010). Management. Hampshire: South Western Cengage Learning #. Dunn, C. (2012, November 29). More Employers Creating Social Media Polices for the Workplace. Retrieved March 19 , 2013, from Corporate Counsel: http://www.law.com/corporatecounsel/PubArticleCC.jsp? id=1202579655072&More_Employers_Creating_Social_Media_Policies_for_the_Workplace&slreturn=20130219093207 Farquhar, C. (1998). Middle Managers are Back: How Companies Have Come to Value Their Middle Managers. Farquhar, C. (1998). Middle Managers are Back. How Companies Have Come to Value Their Middle Managers. Free Dictionary. (2013). Control. Retrieved Feburary 19, 2013, from The Free Dictionary: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/control Heathfield, S. (2013). Work-life Balance. Retrieved Feburary 26, 2013, from About.com : http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryw/g/balance.htm Herscher, P. (2010, May 10). From BP and Wall Street: Corporate Culture Impacts Performance . Retrieved March 11, 2013, from Huffingston Post Businesses: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/penny-herscher/from-bp-and-wall-st-corpo_b_563211.html Improve. (2012, July 27). How far can Employers go in Controlling Employee Behaviour Off the Job . Retrieved March 8, 2013, from Improve: http://www.improve.com/How-far-can-Employers-go-in-Controlling-Employee-Behavior-Off-the-Job/4404# Johnson. (2013). Disadvantages of a Strong Matrix Organizational Structure. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2013, from Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/disadvantages-strong-matrix-organizational-structure-59207.html Lipman, V. (2013, January 13). Why Are So Many Employees Disengaged? Retrieved Feburary 18, 2013, from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/victorlipman/2013/01/18/why-are-so-many-employees-disengaged/ Management Study Guide . (2008). Performance Appraisal and Performance Management. Retrieved Feburary 25, 2013, from Management Study Guide: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/performance-appraisal-and-performance-management.htm Maximize Social Media . (2012). Rapid Rise in Monitoring Employee Use of Social Media. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from Maximise, Social Media: http://maximizesocialmedia.com/social-media-management-rapid-rise-in-monitoring-employee-use-of-social-media Mighty Students. (2010). Elements of Job Design. Retrieved April 2, 2013, from Mighty Students: http://www.mightystudents.com/essay/Elements.Job.Design.68700 Peacock, L. (2010, November 25). McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s launches foundation degree for staff. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from TheTelegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/8157900/McDonalds-launches-foundation-degree-for-staff.html Reed, S. (2010, July 6). How to Manage Employee Behaviour. Retrieved Feburary 28, 2013, from Ezine Articles: http://ezinearticles.com/?How-to-Manage-Employee-Behaviour&id=4613259 Reference for Business. (2013). Management Levels. Retrieved Feburary 19 , 2013, from Reference for Business, Encyclopedia of Business 2nd Edition: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Log-Mar/Management-Levels.html Reporter. (2013, Feburary 27). Melissa Mayer imposed Yahoo! work from home ban after spying on employee log ins. Retrieved March 7, 2013, from Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2287148/I-wouldnt-consider-feminist-s ays-Marissa-Mayer-revealed-imposed-Yahoo-work-home-ban-spying-employee-log-ins.html Smith, T. (2011, May 9). Accountability in Business Management. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2013, from The New Dawn: http://www.thenewdawnliberia.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3430:accountability-in-business-management&catid=36:investment&Itemid=62 Sullivan, I. (2012, July 2). Sixty percent of companies will monitor employee social media use by 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from The Wall: http://wallblog.co.uk/2012/07/02/sixty-percent-of-companies-will-monitor-employee-social-media-use-by-2015/ Twentyman, J. (2007). Keeping tabs (Staff monitoring). Twentyman, J. (2007, October 22). Staff monitoring: keeping tabs on homeworkers. Retrieved Feburary 21, 2013, from Personnel Today: http://www.personneltoday.com/articles/22/10/2007/42869/staff-monitoring-keeping-tabs-on-homeworkers.htm UK Business Information. (2013). The Benefits of in-house training. Retrieved April 2, 2013, from UK Business Information: http://www.business-information-uk.com/in-house-training.html Verheul, I. (2003). Commitment or control? Weiss, T. (2013, Feburary 27). YahooÃ¢â¬â¢s Mayer Slated Over Ã¢â¬ËFoolishÃ¢â¬â¢ Home Working Ban. Retrieved Feburary 28, 2013 , from Tech Week Europe: http://www.techweekeurope.co.uk/news/yahoo-home-working-ban-108776 Wu, J. (2009). McDonaldisation and the Labour Process:Impacts and Resistance. Asian Social Science , 106. Bibliography Broome, I. (2009, July 20). How CCTV can help improve your productivity. Retrieved Feburary 10, 2013, from IanBroome.com: http://iainbroome.com/how-cctv-can-help-improve-your-productivity Business Dictionary. (2013). What is Job Design. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from Business Dictionary: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-design.html Improve. (2012, July 27). How far can Employers go in Controlling Employee Behaviour Off the Job . Retrieved March 8, 2013, from Improve: http://www.improve.com/How-far-can-Employers-go-in-Controlling-Employee-BehavÃ ior-Off-the-Job/4404# Reed, S. (2010, July 6). How to Manage Employee Behaviour. Retrieved Feburary 28, 2013, from Ezine Articles: http://ezinearticles.com/?How-to-Manage-Employee-Behaviour&id=4613259 Reference for Business. (2013). Management Levels. Retrieved Feburary 19 , 2013, from Reference for Business, Encyclopedia of Business 2nd Edition: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Log-Mar/Management-Levels.html Twentyman, J. (2007). Keeping tabs (Staff monitoring). Verheul, I. (2003). Commitment or control? Appendix list 1. 1. Working on feedback: Read the feedback on your assignment carefully, then re-read the piece of work to see the areas that the feedback refers to. You might use a highlighter pen to cross-reference the feedback to your work, or to draw attention to corrections and suggestions. What has your tutor written (key points) What do you understand this to mean? 1. Good introduction, underpinned by theory 2. Critical and analytical throughout 3. Good reference base 4. Contextualised into subject 5. Good analysis 6. Must use references properly 7. Used references and examples to illustrate that points made are utilised in business. 8. Good research base 1. A well designed introduction that has been bolstered with the use of business theory to support the argument. 2. By being argumentative on both sides (control and commitment) it shows that there has been research done and concluded that one was more viable than the other. 3. A diverse range of sources has been used to collate examples e.g. journals books internet
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Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Divorce will lead to happiness. As odd as divorce leading to happiness may sound, it contains truth. Stone Soup, written by Barbara Kingsolver, contains her personal experience with divorce, and the effects divorce had on her family. Kingsolver uses personal experience, to demonstrate that divorce frees the families from bondage. The best way to teach others how divorce, in certain relationships, frees the families from bondage is by using personal experience because individuals who have experienced divorce find it easier to explain the facts of divorce. From childhood, many parents teach their children that divorce is wrong and that there becomes a way to fix the circumstances. At a young age, Kingsolver inherited a definition of divorce from her family and friends. Kingsolver held these beliefs about divorce: Ã¢â¬Å"That it s a lazy way out of marital problems. That it selfishly puts personal happiness ahead of family integrity.Ã¢â¬ (Kingsolver). Society teaches the principle of family integrity, and that when the spouse of a divorce leaves they are only thinking for themselves. Although, principles do change and the perception of divorce can change too. Kingsolver, from experience, claims, Ã¢â¬Å"I had no idea how thoroughly these assumptions overlaid my culture until I went through divorce myself.Ã¢â¬ (Kingsolver). Divorce is commonly misunderstood, and frowned upon, but the many who face such trials are left with the understanding of what divorce really extracts from families, and theShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Stone Soup By Barbara Kingsolver959 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages American novelist, Barbara Kingsolver, in her excerpt, Ã¢â¬Å"Stone SoupÃ¢â¬ , taken from, High Tide in Tucson: Essays from Now or Never, recounts the outrageous view that society has on divorced families/homes. KingsolverÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to impress upon readers that it is okay for families to stem away from the traditional, Ã¢â¬Å"Dad, Mom, Sis, JuniorÃ¢â¬ , family. She creates a persuasive tone in order to get rid of stereotypes and judgments of marital issues held by her readers and society. Through the effective useRead MoreStone Soup Barbara Kingsolver Analysis878 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTogetherness is Family A family consists of people with mutual respect, love, and passions for one another, conveys Barbara Kingsolver in her essay called the Ã¢â¬Å"Stone SoupÃ¢â¬ . She believes that a family isnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily bound by traditional concepts of happy marriages, rather she insists that this is a relatively new ideal in our society. A nuclear family is a representation of normal families; Kingsolver disagrees with this concept, and understands that todays norm are the non traditional families of the worldRead MoreAnalysis of Stone Soup and the Gangster as Tragic Hero Essay examples1342 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesone Analysis of Stone Soup and The Gangster as Tragic Hero It is said that Americans are raised on certain values and all live and strive toward the American dream. Somewhere along the way, though, lines were strewn and those values and morals became extinct by nature. Now with misinterpreted ideals and ideas of logical fallacies as our only reference to the normal way of living, life is made to be more complicated and full of anxiety. In the short stories of Ã¢â¬Å"Stone SoupÃ¢â¬ by Barbara Kingsolver
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